After a while of waiting and watching and trying to think of a better bug report, one that might get a response, and failing, I got a response.
You can't install the module because File::Find can not recurse directories on the file system that is in use by Ubuntu on Windows. The solution is to edit Config.pm: sudo vi /usr/lib/perl/5.18.2/Config.pm Set dont_use_nlink to 'define': dont_use_nlink => 'define', Now it's possible to install all modules you want! (this is a dupliceate of #186)
I haven't made this change yet. I am loathe to change core modules like that, although I have done so in the past. Because I have done so in the past, and it ended up stupid. But I will likely do it.
I was mentally throwing it to the kernel, but was wrong, which is interesting. Makes me think that, rather than running Ubuntu on Windows, doing something with Vagrant might be the better plan.